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February 07, 2006

「死なないで! 1945年真岡郵便局『九人の乙女』」

 maoka
 学校の図書館にあった1冊。川嶋康夫著(農文協)1995年第1刷である。
 南の「ひめゆりの塔」、北の「氷雪の門」と言われる樺太の戦争悲劇の話。
 しかし、自分の常識(固定概念)から言うと分からないことだらけであった。
 
 ・ポツダム宣言受諾が8月15日なのに、その後も樺太ではソビエト軍の侵攻が続き、真岡町は戦火に巻き込まれた。
 ・8月13日に樺太庁は本土への「緊急疎開」を決め、引き上げ作戦が開始された。
 ・しかし、空襲は続き、ソビエト軍の殺戮が繰り返された。
 ・真岡町の8月20日付け戦災死亡者名簿によると死者は418人。行方不明者59人(実際は倍?)
 ・ソビエトの南樺太侵攻から戦争終結の2週間で軍人700人・民間の戦災死者1800人、沈没した引き揚げ船  の犠牲者(死者・行方不明者)が1700人。
 
・・・戦火と化した真岡の郵便局交換台で最後まで従事した9人の女性が自決をする。これが樺太の悲劇である。

 本を読んだ印象でいうと、
・確かに侵攻はあった。集中砲火もあった。
・しかし、自決した女性たちはロシア軍にとらわれる前に青酸カリを飲んでいる。
・集中砲火が止んだ後のロシア軍と生き残った郵便局員とのやりとりを読む限り、「死ななければならない」ような状況は見えてこない。白旗を揚げた郵便局に入ってきたロシア兵は残虐な行為をしていない。女性が強姦されたとも書かれていない。
・つまり、「このままロシア軍が侵攻したら、何をされるか分からないという恐怖と不安から自決した」のであって、本当に自決しなくてはならない状況ではなかった、ということだ。
・自決に追い込まれたのは「もし襲われたら大変だ」という風評・噂によるものだったと現代の感覚では思う。

 中学生に戦争の悲劇を訴えかける1冊だとは思う。
 しかし、「乙女のまま清く死にたい」という理由で自決を選んだ彼女たちの行為は、どこまで共感的に受け止められるだろう。
 戦争未体験の40代の男には「なぜ、死を急がねばならなかったのか」が分からないし、「ひめゆり」も 「氷雪」」も日本国内の風評の犠牲者のように思えて仕方ないのだ。
 
 次のようなHPも熟読しながら、もう少し勉強してみようと思う。 

 「九人の乙女と樺太の戦い
 http://m-take-web.hp.infoseek.co.jp/fujinomiya6.html
 http://www.tv-asianews.com/mika/0831.html

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Comments

それは結果論であって、10分の1でも強姦される確率が在れば、自決すると思いますよ。

Posted by: 通行人 | August 17, 2006 at 12:13 AM

私は「今の常識から言うと分からない」という結果論の立場で書いています。その立場でしか書けませんから。それにしても「10分の1でも強姦の確率が在れば」と書いてありますが、「10分の1の確率」で強姦されるというのはタダゴトではありません。「10分の1の確率で強姦という事実」で自決したのと「10分の1の確率で強姦という風評」で自決したのでは全く意味が違います。通行人さんは「10分の1の確率で強姦の事実」があったとおっしゃるのでしょうか?それなら、私も結果論に過ぎないと開き直った自分の表現の甘さ・不勉強の甘さを反省します。勇み足で言いますが、通行人さんの「10分の1の確率」という表記に根拠がないのだろしたら、風評で自決した少女たちは、やっぱり救われないと思います。

Posted by: 竹田博之 | August 17, 2006 at 10:01 AM

こんにちは。
この真岡郵便局のエピソードですが、郵便局長さんによる誇張だったことがわかっています。
交換手さんは当日12名いて、ほかに男性職員もいました。12人のうち7人が服毒自殺をしてしまったので、その処理の指示をあおぐために連絡をとったことから、この事件が知られるようになりました。服毒しなかった5名の交換手さんと男性職員が服毒した7人を助けるためにソ連兵を招きいれたのだそうです。
生き残った方の少なくともひとりがご健在で、サハリンとの交流事業にときどき参加されています。

Posted by: 北海道 | January 07, 2007 at 11:11 PM

郵便局長さんによる「誇張」とは驚きです。服毒自殺した方がいたことは事実。助けるためにソ連兵が入ったのも事実。「事実は1つ」とはいえ、その解釈や受け止め方・広まり方はさまざまですね。だから一面的な見方は怖いなあと思います。

Posted by: 竹田博之 | January 09, 2007 at 10:59 PM

>「事実は1つ」とはいえ、その解釈や受け止め方・広まり方はさまざまですね。

たとえばソ連兵による強姦についてですが、ソ連は最前線に消耗部隊、いわゆるゴロツキ部隊をつかっていましたので、司令官が占領後の免責を兵士に認めると、とんでもない状況がおこるようになっていました。ドイツや満州でソ連による乱暴狼藉が公然とおこなわれたのはそのためです。今もチェチェンで行われていますね。
ゴロツキ兵が最前線で戦って死んだ後に御行儀の良い正規軍部隊が入城すると言うパターンだったようです。
ですから、ソ連軍による強姦や一方的な殺戮が多かったことも本当ですが、紳士的に対応した部隊が多かったことも本当です。
結局、樺太引き上げの方の中でソ連兵士への印象が大きく異なるのは、最初に出会ったのがゴロツキ部隊かそうでないかで決まってしまったのだろうと思います。

なお、現地サハリンの郷土史家から、日本人への乱暴狼藉をめぐって、それを行おうとするゴロツキ部隊と止めようとする正規軍部隊の間で小競り合いもあったと聞いています。
ただ確認は何もとっていません。今後のテーマです。

Posted by: motomichi | January 21, 2007 at 12:23 PM

「ゴロツキ」というのが、とっても分かりやすい表現で助かります。
ゴロツキ部隊と正規部隊という区別が、どこまで公式見解でされているかが気になるところですね。

Posted by: 竹田博之 | January 22, 2007 at 04:46 PM

本日テレビで特集されるということで、昨日このページのアクセスだけで100を超えました。女子アナが「ほとんど知られることのなかった悲劇」というような表現をしていました。一部しか知らなかったとはいえ、石碑もあります。「南のひめゆり・北の真岡」として、もっともっと認知されるといいですが、どんなドラマになっていることやら(ちょっとい冷めた印象を抱いています)。

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