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October 12, 2008

「授業のまとめ」の2つの意味

 ありがたいことに拙ブログに質問が届いた。

小学校高学年の国語のまとめ作業とは何でしょう。
教える側としての定義と指導法は確立したものがあるのでしょうか

・・・「まとめ作業」という意味がよく分からなかった。

学校の方針でどの教科も、「まとめ作業」が多く戸惑っています。
①国語の物語文、説明文 を系統だって指導する方法はあるのでしょうか。
まとめって、要約、ではそれはどういう作業をどうスモールステップで教えてあげるにはどうすべきか悩んでおります。
丸写しではないこと、要点をいれること。では要点とはなにか。など、すべて一からスモールステップで教えたいと思いますが、すでにそういう指導法は確立されているのでしょうか。

・・・ここまで読んで、「まとめ作業」に2つの意味が混ざっていることが分かりました。
 1つは各教科の「授業のまとめ」
◆今日の授業で分かったことを整理する
◆今日の授業の感想や新たに生じた疑問を書く
というような作業のことです。
 今日の授業のふりかえり、ということでプリント形式で「ふりかえりカード・自己評価カード」という形で書かせる場合も多いです。
 「授業・ふりかえり」などで検索してみるとヒットすると思います。
 
 もう1つは「要約・要点」=文章を簡潔にまとめる、という意味での「まとめ作業」
 子どもに示す手法としては
◆5W1Hであら筋をまとめる。
◆起承転結・はじめーなかーおわり・序論ー本論ー結論のような文章構造を把握し、作者・筆者の一番言いたい部分をつかむ
◆一番重要な1文(トピックセンテンス)を抽出する
◆段落ごとに小見出しをつける
◆文章全体には最初から「題名」がついているから見出しはいらないが、題名と文章全体の意味関係を確認する作業が効果的な場合がある

などがあります。
 後者の意味なら「要約指導」あたりでネット検索すれば、書籍も研究論文もたくさんヒットすると思います。

 私の要約指導のレポートもよかったらご覧ください

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Comments

ご返答をありがとうございました。さっそく論文も拝見させていただきました。重ねて、質問させて頂きます.家族で小学生のディレクシアの子どもを支えています。学校が私立で、特別支援の専門家もいませんので、とにかく大幅に遅れさせないように努力しています。 読み書きがひどく苦手ですから、細分化し具体的に手順を示してあげる必要があります。

学校は総合学習、社会、理科のなどどの教科も自分でインターネットや辞典などで情報を収集し、『ノートにまとめなさい』と指示をだします。塾で練習をしている子どもや、初めからコツを飲み込みやすい子どもを別にすれば、子供たちは苦戦しながらも要約作業を身につけていくようです。

我が家の娘には『そのうち分かる』は期待できません。最低限の量を、順序立て具体的なスモールステップを積み上げるように教えてあげたいのです。 例えば、要約する目的は?文体は?まず要点とは?キーワードを捜すのか、自分の言葉で言い換えるのか?キーワードとは何か?書き抜く以前に、マーカーを利用する。まずキーワードにラインをひく練習をさせるのはどうだろうか。説明文、物語、社会科、それぞれの『まとめ作業』とは、何をすべきと期待されているのか? などなど教える際の視点は沢山あるようです。問題は、私ども両親ともなにから手をつけるか分からず、実際にはなにも教えられないことです。

残念ながら『社会のまとめ』のためにせめてルビ付きの資料を用意してあげるぐらいしかできておりません。それでも授業中には、一行書いては消し、、の繰り返しのようです。持ち帰ったノートで親が手助けすることは出来ますが、確立した方法で取り組ませたいのです。教え方さえ工夫すれば、手順は飲み込めると思います。学校ではやり方は学ばないのですから、家庭がじっくりと向き合って教えてあげなければなりません。

漢字の読み書きや、文法にのっとって文章が書けるには書けても作文がひどく苦手な生徒さんは今までお会いした事はおありでしょうか?なにかヒントがありましたらどうぞよろしくお願い致します。

Posted by: yukiyuki | October 21, 2008 at 11:14 PM

 横山浩之ドクターが監修された作文ワークがあります。
「グレーゾーンの子どもに対応した作文ワーク」 全4冊セットです。
次のような特徴を持っています。
==================
医学の視点で作られたワークでどの子も文章が書けるようになる。
どの学級にもいるといわれるADHD・LDの子、いわゆるグレーゾーンの子どもに基礎学力を保障するため、「書く」指導をどう見直すか。医療側との連携による新しい作文ワークを1年間かけて提案した。直ぐ使えて効果抜群は実践した教師の実証済み。
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