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November 26, 2008

褒める意義は、ドーパミンとセレトニンの分泌にあった

 たまたま目にしたダイヤモンド社の情報サイト。
 タイトルは「部下の扱いにご注意!ほめないと不機嫌になる女・負けるとヘコみっぱなしの男」
http://diamond.jp/series/mf_rules/10017/
 特に注目したのが2ページ目・3ページ目、ドーパミンとセロトニンの話だ。
 内容を私の文責で精選すると次のようになる。

 ①他人からの称賛、感謝、愛情を受けると、脳の腹側被蓋野(ふくそくひがいや=「報酬系」と呼ばれている部位)などの部分が刺激を受ける。

 ②ここからドーパミンという快楽を生み出すホルモンが大量に分泌され、気分はハイになる。

 ③もし、報酬系が刺激されず、ドーパミンが十分に分泌されない生活を送っていたら、頑張ってもご褒美がもらえないことに脳が気づき、だんだんとやる気が失われてしまう。

 ④ドーパミンがどっと出たあとは、セロトニンもおおいに分泌される。
  「セロトニン」は心に安らぎを与えてストレスから守る役目をする別名「幸福ホルモン」。
  ドーパミンが快楽を高め、感情をたかぶらせると、セロトニンがドーパミンの暴走を防ぎ、感情を鎮めるアクセルとブレーキのような関係である。

 ⑤気持が不安定なところへ、報酬系が刺激を受けない状態が続いたら、イライラが募り、気分も落ち込んでしまう。

 ⑥逆に、「ほめ言葉」によって報酬系の部位が刺激されるとドーパピンが分泌され、同じく心を鎮めるセレトニンが分泌されるので、
  イライラもせず、ニコニコしていられる。

 ⑦ただし、ケンブリッジ大学の研究によると、ドーパミンを生み出す脳細胞「ドーパミンニューロン」は、刺激を受けっぱなしだとかえって活性が落ちるという。もっとも活性が高まるのは、刺激を受ける確率が50%のとき。
つまり、ほめたり、ほめなかったりを繰り返すのがコツ。ほめすぎないこと

 ⑧これに対し、スタンフォード大学薬学部の研究によると、男性脳の報酬系を刺激するのは、ほめられることより、競争に勝つこと。
 競争に挑戦する機会と、正当な人事考課こそが、男性における最大のインセンティブ。ほめることも必要だが、それより「勝たせること」が男性部下の育成のカギ。

・・・長々とまとめたのは、エラーレスランニングと学習中の褒め言葉の関係について書いたことつながっているように思えたからだ。
 エラーレスで学習が行われれば、必然的に「褒められる場面」が多くなる。
 報酬系が刺激されてドーパミンが分泌されれば気分がハイになり、セレトニンも多量に分泌されるから落ち着いた生活も送れる。だから、ますます成功体験が積み上がる。
 すると、昨日書いた「『どうせ自分なんか』から『やればできる』」に心境が変化していく
 自分に自信を持てる=健全な自尊感情の育成につながっていくのである。

 ちなみに上記の⑧は「褒め言葉」とは違う。
 しかし、ペーパーチャレランや五色百人一首を例に出すまでもなく、TOSS実践は⑧の「正当な個別評定」「勝たせる機会の設定」には定評がある。
 やみくもに競争原理を否定するのではなく、裏文化など適宜競争場面を設定しているTOSS実践が科学的に実証されたということになるだろうか。
 


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