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December 25, 2008

「ごんぎつね」をどう読むか

 以前『ごんぎつね』を「こそこそ償いをするから相手に通じないのだ」というようなことを書いて批判的なコメントをいただいた。
 「こそこそ」は本文中にない言葉だから、恣意的にイメージダウンをはかった言葉だと言われてもしかたない。
 したがって、今回は無理のない程度の表現で解釈をしてみる。

 さて新美南吉の『ごんぎつね』(小4)を読む。
 すなおに読めば「悲劇」だ。
 最後に「分かり合えた」からハッピーエンドという人もいるようだが、それは無理がある。
 銃で撃たれた後に「分かり合えた」という皮肉な結果は「ハッピー」とは言えない。
 だから、私は「悲劇」でいいと思っている。
 「悲劇」なのだから、
◆なぜ、このような悲劇が起きたのか
◆どうすれば、このような悲劇は防げたか
という形で思考を促せばいい。
 作者の願いも
「読者の皆さんは、この作品のような悲劇を起こさないように」
という警鐘だと、とらえることができる。

というわけで、「ごんぎつね」の悲劇の原因と教訓を探ってみる。
  ちなみに教訓として2つの方向がある。「~すべし」と「~べからず」だ。

(1)ごんは「いたずら」をして、兵十を怒らせたので撃たれた。
  「いたずら」は、よくない行為だからしてはいけない。
(2)兵十の母の死を自分のせいだと「思いこんだ」ため、ごんは自分から兵十に近づき撃たれた。
  よく考えてから行動しよう。「思いこみ」の行動はいけない。
(3)ごんの「謝罪」の気持ちが、兵十に通じなかったので誤解されて撃たれた。
  「謝罪」したいなら、相手に伝わるようにきちんと謝るべし。
(4)ごんは自分の償いの行為を神様のせいだと思われ「引き合わない」と感じ、「感謝されたい」と思い何度も近づいたので撃たれた。
  感謝されたいなどと「欲」を出してはいけない。
(5)動物と人間は「言葉が通じない」からから撃たれた。
  みんなは人間だから、きちんと「言葉」で意志を伝えるべし。
(6)ずばり「不如意」。
  人生は思い通りにいくとは限らないことを知るべし。
(7)「すれちがい」
  人生には「すれちがい」があることを知るべし。

 「~すべし」・・・・・「謝罪」「言葉」「不如意」「すれちがい」
 「~べからず」・・・「いたずら」「思いこみ」「欲」

・・・(7)は「すれちがいに気を付けよう」ではなく、「すれちがいは起こりうる」という意味で述べた。

 教訓的に読むことだけが全てではない。この7つの読みが正解だとも思ってはいない。
 ただ、教訓的な意味があるからこそ読み継がれる民話も多い。
 「ごんぎつね」は民話風なので、読み継がれ、語り継がれる意味を考えて、教訓を想定することもあっていいのだと思う。

 ★原典はすぐに出ないが「ごんぎつね」を低学年に読ませると「死んでいない・生き返る」として読む子が多いそうだ。生きていてほしい・死んでしまうなんて悲しすぎると思うから、生きていると信じたいのだそうだ。
 そして「ごんは死んだ」と悲劇を受け入れて読めるのが10歳前後=4年生という発達段階なのだそうだ。
 なるほどね、ごんの死を受け入れるのも発達段階の問題だったのか。
 私は、この「ごんぎつね」の結末は、作者が結末をはっきり書かないで読者に委ねる「論点回避」の手法だと思っていました。

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» 書評:『ごんぎつね』(新美南吉) [酒井徹の日々改善]
――根元的な「救いのなさ」を描ききる―― ■子供相手に手加減無し 「国語の教科書」で出会った作品で、 いつまでたっても気になり続ける作品は ないだろうか。 僕の場合は、 高校時代の中島敦『山月記』と、 小学校時代の新美南吉『ごんぎつね』とが それに当たる。 特に『ごんぎつね』である。 よく考えてみれば救いのない話だ。 完全に理不尽な話かといわれると、 必ずしもそうではない、というあたりが、 ますますリアルに救いがない。 ブログ「子どもの時間」を主宰するasag... [Read More]

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