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January 09, 2010

フィンランドの教育~3つのコミュニケーション~

 フィンランド教育について話す北川達夫氏の講演メモに次のようにある。

コミュニケーションの3つのレベル
(1)個人的コミュニケーション
(2)地域的コミュニケーション
(3)国際コミュニケーション

 地域(同じ国)なら、言葉で説明しなくても分かる。「普通は○○するだろう」と通じ合うからだ。
 しかし、国際的には、自国の文化の「常識」や「普通」が通用しない。価値観の共有を前提としない。
 だから、いちいち説明をしなくてはいけない。
 相手を論理的に説得しなくてはいけない。
 
 北川氏は、このあたりをPISA型読解力の有名な問題で解説された。
==================
 落書きをどう思うか、賛成反対の2つの意見のどちらの「書き方」を支持するかを述べる問題。
 「落書きもアートだから許される」という意見は日本の倫理や常識では考えられない。
 そのような事例で、自分の本心は別として提示された2つの意見文の「書き方」を比較・吟味させている。

===================
 つまり、この問題の内容こそが、国際コミュニケーション能力のレベルを試している典型例なのだそうだ。

 また、「理屈は分かるが納得できない」「頭では分かるが腑に落ちない」
という状況についても触れた。
 北川氏は、コミュニケーションの優先順位として、
===============
相手意識が全ての基本
◆相手がきちんと納得するように論理を組み、相手が理解できるよう表現する。
◆どんなに論理的でも相手が納得しなければだめ
◆表現の正しさ・論理の正しさよりも、相手に伝わる言葉かどうかが大事

===============
と言われた。
 相手が「理屈では分かるが納得できない」と思うような状況では駄目だということだ。
 例として小泉首相の話し方を挙げられた。
 小泉首相の語りは、論理的でないかもしれないし、強引かも知れないが聞く人を納得させてしまうところがあった。
 論理の正しさよりも説得のうまさ」というのは、自分にとってはショッキングな主張であった。
 でも「正論だけ主張しても受け入れてくれない」のが世の中で現実離れした正論を述べる人物は嫌われるし
国際的な常識で考えたら、自分の「正論」が、他者にとっても「正論」だとは限らない。確かにそうだ。
 先にも述べたように、同じ国なら、言葉で説明しなくても分かる。「普通は○○するだろう」と通じ合うが
国際的には、自国の文化の「常識」や「普通」は通用からだ。
 さて、このあたりは、かってのキムタク主演のドラマ「CHANGE」の第五話に通じるものがある。
 ここで「話し合い」の意味を語る場面があった。
 こんな内容だ。
◆以前僕は小学校の教師をやっていたのです。去年は5年生を受け持っていたんですけど、とにかくよく喧嘩するんですよ。
でも中には、陰湿なものとかがあって、そこからイジメにつながっちゃったりもするんですけど、
そういう問題があったときには、僕は子供たちにこういう風に言っていました。
「考えよう」って。
クラスメートなんだから、気に入らないこととか納得できないこととかあったら、自分の言いたいことはちゃんと相手に言って、
相手の言うことはちゃんと聞いてお互いにとことん考えよう。
 そうすれば相手と自分は違うんだということに気づくんです。
 同じ人間だと思っているから、ちょっと否定されただけでムカついたり、誰かが一人別行動をとったら、何だあいつってそこからケンかとかいじめが始まるんです。
 でも同じ人間なんていないじゃないですか。みんな考え方も事情も違う人間ですよね。
 だからボクは、子供たちに自分と相手は違うんだということを理解して欲しかったんです。
 その上で、じゃあどういう言葉を使えば、自分の気持ちが相手に伝わるのか、どうすれば相手を説得できるのか、そこを考えろと言ってきました。
 
 外交も、同じだと思うんですよ。
 先ほどビンガムさんがおっしゃった、とおり、僕たちは同盟国です。
 でもやっぱり違うんですよ、日本とアメリカは。だからビンガムさんが思っていることとか、いいたいことがあったら、全部言ってください、僕もそうしますから。
 日米構造協議は今年で終わったわけじゃないですよね。
 だからこれからもっともっととことん話し合いましょうよ。
 そうすればお互いが納得出来る答えがきっと見つかると思うんです。

http://kukku.tea-nifty.com/tea/2008/06/change_8031.html

 話し合うことは「分かりあう」ためではなく、「自分と相手は違うんだ理解する」ため。
 これは、国際的なコミュニケーションを進める上で重要なポイントだ。
 キムタクがアメリカの大臣に語るこのシーンは、このセオリーを踏まえての台本なのだと思う。

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