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January 11, 2010

フィンランドメソッドで「ごんぎつね」の発問計画

フィンランドメソッドについての北川達夫氏の講演メモを整理していて、次のサイトにも詳しい解説があることが分かった。
 http://www.kotoba-manabi.jp/pdf/kouen_kitagawa.pdf

 国語教育で用いる2つの読書カードは、そのまま授業で用いる発問になる。
 このような問いを用いて、いつも物語を一人読みしているとしたら、これは思考力がつくはずだ。

◆2年用読書カード (1枚目)
① 主人公はだれかな?
② 主人公が直面した問題はなにかな?
③ ほかにどんな問題が起こったかな?
④ 主人公のほかに、どういう人が出てきた?
⑤ 物語の中で好きなところはどこ?
 どうして好きなのかな?
⑥ この物語を読めば答えが分かる問題を作ってみよう。

◆2年用読書カード (2枚目)
① 主人公はどういう人だと思う?
 物語から証拠を挙げて説明しよう。
② 主人公にききたいことはないかな?
③ 主人公に教えてあげたいことはないかな?
④ 主人公はどうやって問題を解決したかな?
⑤ 自分だったら、どうやって問題を解決する?
⑥ いろいろな解決方法を比べてみる。
 これだけでも十分感激する内容だが、まだ続く。

◆教科書を使って基礎技能を習得させる読解授業の展開

1.読前の対話
 ① 内容と知識・経験とを関連付ける活動
 ② 挿絵を「読む」
 ③ タイトル・挿絵・小見出しなどから内容を推測
2.読中の対話
 ① 内容の確認
 ② 部分理解に基づく発問
 ③ 考え・感性・価値観の比較
 ④ 次の展開の自由な推測
3.読後の対話
 ① 内容と体験とを関連付ける活動
 ② 全体理解の確認(問題・解決策の認識)
 ③ 全体理解に基づく発問
 ④ 考え,感性,価値観の比較

◆発問の区分
 ① 文中の一か所から答えが見つかる問い
 ② 文中の複数箇所から答えが見つかる問い
 ③ 推論を要する問い(文中に答えがない)

 このあたりをもう少し整理してみよう。
 まずは読書カード①②を「ごんぎつね」を想定して統合してみる。
 上記の発問区分①②③を加え、分裂しそうな部分は「話し合い」の機会とする。
「話し合い」は討論に近い形をねらっているが、解釈を1つに絞るためのものではない。
「考え・感性・価値観の比較」というのは、自分と同じ考えもあれば違う考えもあることを知る場面であるからだ。

ア② 主人公はだれかな?・・・・・・・・・・・・ごん
イ② 主人公のほかに、どういう人が出てきた?・・・兵十・おっかあ・村人

※②主人公は、ごんですか、兵十ですか?

ウ② 主人公は「ごん」だとして、どういうきつねだと思う?物語から証拠を挙げて説明しよう。
・・・・・・・いたずらずき・さみしがりや・本当はやさしい・ひとりぼっち
  
エ② 主人公に聞きたいことはないかな
・・・・・どうして「ぼくが栗や松茸を運んだ」って言わなかったの?
※ともだちの意見を聞いてメモしよう。
※どんな答えが予想できるか自分なりの考えを書いてみよう。

オ② 主人公が直面した問題はなにかな?
・・・・・兵十に悲しい思いをさせた
・・・・・兵十のおっかあにうなぎを食べさせられなかった

カ② ほかにどんな問題が起こったかな?
・・・・・兵十が盗人と思われてしまった。兵十に撃たれてしまった

※② この作品で一番大きな問題は何ですか?

キ② 主人公はどうやって問題を解決したかな?
・・そっと栗や松茸を届けた

※②③ 主人公の問題は解決したのですか、していないのですか?

ク③ 主人公に教えてあげたいことはないかな?
・・・・兵十のおっかあが死んだのは、ごんのせいじゃないかもしれないよ。

※ともだちの意見を聞いてメモしよう。

ケ③自分だったら、どうやって問題を解決する?

※ともだちの意見を聞いてメモしよう。

コ③ いろいろな解決方法を比べてみよう。

※ともだちの意見を聞いて、よりよい解決方法を考えよう。

サ②③ 物語の中で好きなところはどこ?
 どうして好きなのかな?

※自分の意見を発表し、ともだちの意見を聞いて比べてみよう。

シ②③「この物語から読み取れる教訓は何か」

ス①② この物語を読めば答えが分かる問題を作ってみよう。

・・・北川氏の講演記録に次の部分がある。

   私の提案で,フィンランドの5 年生に「スイミー」を読んでもらいました。
  その際,フィンランドの先生が考えた問題です。
  「ほかの赤い魚の兄弟たちは無個性である / 個性的である」。
   両方根拠づけることができます。みなさんも考えてみてください。

・・・選択的に問うことで論点が明確になり、根拠づけることでさらに文章検討が進む。
 それにしても、はっとする面白い発問だと思う(日本の5年生には難解だろう)。
 このような発問が思いつくような基盤がフィンランドメソッドにはあるということだ。
 また、次の記録がある。

  全体理解に直結した発問として「この物語から読み取れる教訓は何か」というのがあります。
  これが,解釈の違いで微妙に違ってくることがあります。
  先ほどお話しした「スイミー」で,日本の子どもたちにこの発問をすると, 「協力することの大切さ」などが多いですね。ところが,フィンランドの5 年生は21 人中18 人が「集団には指導者が必要だ」と言いました。
 この後,会話が続きます。「では,スイミーというのは優れた指導者だろうか,無謀な指導者だろうか」と。
 すると,「無謀な指導者」という答えが多いのです。
  「外の世界は楽しいよ,なんて軽薄な理由で,全員の命を危険にさらしたから」と。
  なるほど。そこで,日本の子どもたちはこんなふうに読むよというと,逆に彼らは「なるほど」と言うのです。確かにそれは大切だと。おもしろいですね。

・・・子どもたちからの様々な意見を聞く中で、さらに教師が選択的に発問し、思考を絞り込んでいる様子が分かる。話の流れに沿って、次の発問を提示するあたりは、お見事である。

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