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January 07, 2010

「世界で一番美しいぼくの村」(東京書籍 4年)

 「世界で一番美しいぼくの村」(東京書籍 4年)の実践レポートを見る機会があった。
 この作品は戦争という状況下でたくましく、またやさしく生きる主人公や家族・村人の様子を描いている。
 授業者は、明るい部分と暗い部分とが対比的に描かれていると指摘していたが、実は作品の中に暗い場面はそれほどない。
 時々戦争の痛手や不安を表す部分も出てくるが、そういう状況を忘れさせるほど、みんな一生懸命明るく生きている、とプラスイメージで押さえる構造だ。
 そして、この作品全体を包む「明るさ・たくましさ」が最後の一文

 その年の冬、村ははかいされ、今はもうありません。

で全て消去される。
 そのラストの暗さをこそ「対比」的に扱うべきだ。
①こんなに平和な村がなくなってしまった。
②こんなにやさしい人たちの暮らしがすべて失われてしまった。
③(ひょっとしたら)こんなに暖かい村人が全員殺されてしまった。
 それまでの「明るさやたくましさ」が強調されればされるほど、それが奪われた悲しみが強調される。
 それが「対比」の効果である。
 このような対比の意識がなければ、この作品の悲劇性は伝わってこない。
 ところが、その「対比」の自覚がないものだから、授業者は、この話の続きや主人公への手紙・主人公のお返事などを書かせている。
 その内容は、最後の一文の悲劇性に注目せず、
 「村を失ったが別の場所で元気に暮らしている」
 「大変だけどがんばってね」
 「お手紙ありがとう」
といった極めて脳天気なハッピーエンド型の内容だった。
 子どもがハッピーエンドにしたがる気持ちは分かる。
 村が破壊されたという事実を否定したい気持ちは分かる。
 しかし、だからといって作品の事実を否定した読みは許されるべきではない。

 少し整理する。
 実践レポートの対比は、作品中の【明るい場面】と【暗い場面】の対比だった。確かに作業は容易だ。
 しかし、作品中の暗い場面はないのだから、本来対比すべきなのは
 【作品に見られる明るい場面】と【その明るい町が破壊されてしまった事実】
 では、具体的には、どんな作業を入れればいいのか。
 例えば、次のような流れだ。
①作品の中で明るい部分・陽気な部分をたくさん抜き出す。
②「その年の冬、村ははかいされ、今はもうありません」とあるので、
 今は、先に列挙した明るさ・陽気さが残っているかどうかを考える。
③町が破壊されてしまったのだから、ほとんどの明るさ・陽気さはなくなっている。
 だから、列挙した部分の大半に×をつける。
④ほとんどに×がついたノート(板書)を見て、気がついたこと・思ったことを書く。
⑤気がついたこと・思ったことを発表し相互交流させる。
  
 その年の冬、村ははかいされ、今はもうありません。

 このラストの1文の重みをきちんと実感させないなら、この作品を教える価値はない。

◆追加
 作品の中に出てくる「戦争から帰ってきた人」のような存在は、いわゆる布石である。
 布石として存在させているものを「明るいー暗い」の対比の要因に入れることはないと思う。
 
 絵本のあとがきに解説がある。
===============
 この絵本の舞台は、アジアのどまんなかにある国、アフガニスタンです。
 (中略)
 ひとびとは、ながいあいだ、家畜を追い、畑をたがやして、くらしてきました。
 ところが、平和だったこの国で戦争がはじまりました。1980年ごろにはじまった戦争は、15年たったいまも、つづいています。アフガニスタンじゅうの村から、たくさんのわかものが、戦場へでかけていきました。戦いは国じゅうにひろがり、あれはてた土地をすてて外国へ避難する人たちは、500万人をこえました。(後略) 
 
 

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