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June 19, 2010

学校行事と通過儀礼

 通過儀礼。
 ウイキペデイアによれば、出生、成人、結婚、死などの人間が成長していく過程で、次なる段階の期間に新しい意味を付与する儀礼。
 イニシエーションとして古来から行われているものとしては割礼や抜歯、刺青など身体的苦痛を伴うものである事が多い。
 近世日本の武家階級では元服。
 地域によっては男子の場合、米俵1俵を持ち上げることができたら一人前とか、1日1反の田植えができたら一人前とかいった、年齢とは別の成人として認められる基準が存在した例もある。
 男子の場合、明治時代から終戦までは徴兵検査・兵役が「一人前の男」になるための通過儀礼と見なされていた。
 現代の日本においては、七五三などの幼少時の通過儀礼や、還暦祝いなどの老年期の通過儀礼は残っているものの、「子供から大人への通過儀礼」が過去ほど明確には意識されてはいない。
 18歳で運転免許の取得が可能になる、20歳で選挙権の行使が可能になるなど、法律上、一定年齢になれば自動的に権利が与えられるものはあるが、儀式としては成人式以外に通過儀礼と呼べるものはない。

・・・・「節目」という広義にとらえると、学校の行事1つで、子どもがぐんと成長することがある。
極端に言うと、成長のチャンスは毎日存在し、毎日が通過儀礼の連続である。

 さて、2泊3日の野外学習(5年生)の引率をした。
 家族と行かない宿泊行事は子ども本人にとっても保護者にとっても一大イベントである。
 1泊の修学旅行に比べると2泊の野外学習は楽しみも多いが負担も多い。
 この時期の5年生は男子の方が幼い。
 今回も、夜になって4名の男子がぐずり出した。おうちに帰りたいのだ。
 自分で荷物の管理をし、親から離れて夜を過ごす体験は、その後の大きな自信になる。

 振り返れば、我が子の保育園時代も「お泊まり保育」があり、これは子供以上に保護者が心配したものだ。
 これなどは「親離れ」よりも「子離れ」のための通過儀礼だったかもしれない。

 親元から離れて2晩過ごす、という行事は、重要な「子供から大人への通過儀礼」に位置づけられる。
 本人へのプラス効果を考えたら、修学旅行よりも影響は大きい。


  ところで「通過儀礼」には、共同体の一員として迎えるため、若者に艱難辛苦を与え、それを乗り越えさせる、という意義もある。
 恩田陸の『夜のピクニック』で有名になった「歩く会」なども、それにあたるだろう。
 難しい課題に挑戦させることに意味がある。
 無理かもしれないと思うような課題に愚直に取り組みやり通す。その達成感が自信につながり、自尊感情を育てる。

 「可愛い子には旅をさせろ」であり、
 「百獣の王ライオンは、我が子を谷底に落とし、這い上がってきた子供だけを育てる」である。

 今回の野外学習でも少々長いハイキングコースを設定した。
 8時半に集合して、おにぎりを受け取って、終了が2時。
 ボランテイアスタッフの指示でゆっくりゆっくり休憩しながらのハイキングだったが、子どもにとっては大変だったと思う。
 一緒に歩きながら、こうした活動は大事だなと実感した。
 安全性を優先して、お手軽コースだけにする手もあるが、時にはちょっと高めのハードルをチャレンジさせ子どもの可能性を引き出すことも大切だ。
 だだし、せっかくのチャレンジなのに、淡々と終えてしまっては効果はない。
 「よくがんばったね」
 「大変な課題を見事に乗り越えたね」
 「みんな1つ成長したね」
と称えることで、子ども達も自信を持つ。
 そのような演出もセットにして「通過儀礼」を仕組む配慮が必要だ。 

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