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December 17, 2010

二重主語の文の場合

 12月12日付きの日本経済新聞、外山滋比古氏の連材「日本語の散歩道」で、「『は』は主語か」が論じられていた。
 「ボクはウナギだ」
 「象ハ鼻ガ長イ」
 「雨がふる」
などが例示されていた。
 
 以前、自分も書いたことがある。

◆中学校1年国語で「文の成分」を扱っている。指導書を久しぶりにみて驚いた。
 「私は水がほしい(対象語)」と書いてある例文について次のように解説がある。

「論理的には『水を』とも言える表現であるので『連用修飾語』とすべきである」

 当然、その通りである。
 だが、実際は、「『水が』も『主語』と扱う」というのが光村の見解だ。次のように解説している。

===============
 光村版教科書の立場は、述語が表現する事柄(動作・作用=ドウスル、性質・状態・情意・判断=ドンナダ・ドウダ、説明=ナンダ)の主体(ナニガ)を抑えるために、表現や理解の活動の面からも利点があるとする考えによって、前に掲げた例の(1)(2)(3)のようなものをすべて「主語」としている。
 なお、(3)のような例については
 
(主語)   (述部)
 私は、  水が ほしい
      (主語)(述語)
 
のような係り受けの関係が成り立つので、「水が」を述部に含まれる「部分の主語」とする。

・・・分からない。
 そもそも相手は中学生である。
 良心的な先生なら英語と重ねて指導をする。
 
 私は水がほしい= I want water

で考えれば、主語は「私」、「水が」は「水を」だから英語で言えば目的語、日本語で言えば修飾語である。
  「私は リンゴが 好きだ」でも同じだ。
 「学校文法」というジャンルがあるなら、むしろ、中学英語と違和感のない指導を「学校文法」として確立してほしいと思う。
 自分が不勉強なだけなのだろうか。
 「象は鼻が長い」の本を学生時代に読んだ覚えがあるのだが。
 文法について、もう少し勉強しないと。◆

 
 この時は、「私は」が主語に決まっているじゃないか、と力説している。
 しかし、ことは、それほど単純じゃない。
 「は」は主語を表わさない、という主張もあるからだ。

 今日は雨が降る

の場合、「何がどうする」の構文で考えれば「雨が降る」が主語述語になる。

 今日はどんなだ
 ↓
 今日は「雨が降る状態」だ。


 「今日は『雨が降る』日だ」の省略形だとする考え方も同じだ。

 一方

 「今日は、疲れたなあ」

の場合、疲れた主体を表す言葉(たとえば「ボクは」)が、省略されていることは明白だ。中学生だって
「今日は」が主語ではおかしいと気づく。

 外山氏の連載の一部のみ引用する。


 戦前のかなり古い話になるが「象ハ鼻ガ長イ」が問題になったことがある。「象ハ」と「鼻ガ」と主語が二つある、二重主語だと言われたのである。この「ハ」は、「ボクはウナギだ」の「は」と同じで、主題を示すもので、主語ではないと考えれば解決する。英文法の知識があると「は」とあれば主語と考えやすい。
 この問題にはっきり決着をつけたのは、三上章『象ハ鼻ガ長イ』(1960くろしお出版)である。「象ハ」の「ハ」は主語でなく主題を示すものとのべられている。名著だが、どうしたわけか国内より海外で注目され、ことに旧ソ連で評判が高かった(以下略)

 たまたま図工の時間に児童に持ってこさせた新聞の中に、このコラムを見つけた。偶然にしても幸運だった。
 前から知っていたことといえ新鮮な驚きがあった。
 「が」と「は」の言及は、つい最近読んだ『日本語は敬語があって主語がない 「地上の視点」の日本文化論 (光文社新書) にもあった。
 その中では何度も三上氏の「象ハ鼻ガ~」が登場した。
 著者の金屋氏は、『主語を抹殺した男/評伝三上章』という著書もあるほどだ。
 そして、「が」と「は」については詳細なコラムもあった。

======================== 
 P54 助詞「は」は主語を表さない。

 学校文法では、「は」が文の主語を表すと教えますが、これは大きな間違いです。三上章(1903ー1971)をはじめ、優れた文法学者が指摘したように、「は」は述語と文法関係を表すものではありません
 これはすでに江戸時代の国文法では知られていたことで、本居宣長(1730-1801)や富士谷成章(1738-1779)などは、一度も「主語」という概念や用語を使ったことがありませんでした。「は」は「も」「しか」などとともに係助詞と呼ばれて、「を・と・で・が・に・へ」など、格助詞と峻別されていたのです。文法関係を表すのは、これら格助詞のほうです。
 (以下略)
=========================

 そうだった、そうだった!
 中学校で文法を教えているときの、注意事項の1つが

 ◆「は」は、格助詞じゃないぞ。◆

であった。
 格助詞は「鬼が部屋のとから出より」=「を・に・が・へ・や・の・と・から・で・より」
であり、たしか教科書では「は」は強調を表す副助詞だった(現代文法に、係助詞はなかった)。

 その理由について自覚できていなかった。
 結局「ボクはウナギだ」も「象ハ鼻ガ長イ」も、斜め読みだったのが原因だ。
 この機会に、もう少し勉強してみよう。
 

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