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July 10, 2011

子どもの実態に合わせて、授業を組み立てる

 4年生の「1つの花」の授業を参観して、大人の読みと子どもの読みにズレがあることが分かった。
 お母さんの「一つだけ」の意図を尋ねているのに、ゆみ子の「一つだけ」のことだと思って答える子がたくさんいたのだ。
 これは、大人ほど容易に視点を変えられないから、「1つだけ」というセリフをゆみ子の立場でしか想定できないのだ。

 お母さんの口癖 「1つだけ」=「1つだけでがまんしてね・1つだけしかあげられないからね」
 ゆみ子の口癖  「1つだけ」=「1つだけちょうだい」=「もっとちょうだい」

 という口癖の奥にある「ずれ」が、このお話の悲哀につながるのだから、ここはきちんと押さえないといけないのだが、この「口癖」の移行の展開は意外に難しい。
 少なくとも「難しいのだ」と言う自覚が教師には必要だ。
 
さて、この時のクラスでも、初発の感想で「ゆみ子はわがままだ」「ゆみ子は食いしん坊だ」という意見が少なからずあったのだが、別の先生からも、「ゆみ子は欲張りだ」という意見が多くて戸惑ったと聞いた。

 「ゆみ子は欲張りだ・食いしん坊だ・わがままだ」という意見は誤読である。
 おそらく、「こういう意見が出たけど、どう思いますか」とみんなに問い返せば、それがおかしいという意見もきちんと出ると思う。
 いずれにしろ、「欲張り・わがまま・食いしん坊」という読みを、きちんと正しておかないと、とうてい次の段階にはいけない。誤読を正す場の設定が必要である。

 「なんてかわいそうな子なんでしょうね」と憐れむお母さんの心境
 「この子は、一生のひとつだけの喜びももらえないかもしれない」と将来を悲観するお父さんの心境どころではない。

 ただ、このような「誤読」を、意外な読みだと思っているようでは、本当は児童の把握が甘いのだと思う。
 子どもは、一読レベルでは「欲張り・わがまま・食いしん坊」と受け止めやすい。
 その前提で、その誤解を解くところからまずが授業を仕組むべきなのだ。

 当該学年の、読みのレベル
 当該学年の、誤読の傾向

について想定することも、教材解釈・授業準備の不可欠な要素である。

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Comments

23年前の味美小の4ー3だった者です。最近、先生のブログを見始めました。色んな角度から授業をしたり生徒を見たりしていて懐かしく思いました。当時の学級日誌、宝島を読み返しました。
体に気をつけて頑張ってください

Posted by: S | July 11, 2011 at 07:47 PM

23年前の教え子か、誰かなあ・・・。「宝島」がんばって書いていたけど、ずいぶん独善的であったと思います。つきあってくれた子どもと保護者には感謝していますよ!

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