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October 23, 2011

インプット仮説とアウトプット仮説について学ぶ

市内で中学校英語の実践レポート発表を聞いた。
助言者の愛知学院大学教授の杉浦正好先生の話からは、いくつか学ぶべき指摘があった。

①大事なのはアウトプット。石川遼君のCMのようにシャワーのように英語をインプットしても成果はない。

②セサミストリートもいい内容だが、アウトプットがないので、成果が上がらなかった。

③インプットには適切なレベルがある。あまりに難しいレベルのインプットでは効果がない。

・・・発表者のレポートの内容に「アウトプット」「インプット」という言葉が出てきたことからの話の流れだが、きちんと「インプット理論」「アウトプット理論」を踏まえた論文にするようにといった指摘があった。
③は「レデイネス」のことだなと思いながら聞いていた。

 帰宅して「インプット仮説」「アウトプット仮説」について検索し、その奥深さを知った。
 とりわけ、初心者には 「英語教育ニュース」のコラムが、役立った。
http://www.eigokyoikunews.com/columns/taishukan/2009/01/post_1.html

 そのまま引用しても、なかなか理解が難しい。
 あえて、抜粋引用・改行で示させていただく。

◆インプット(input)が第二言語の習得に不可欠なのは言うまでもない。
 学習者に与えるインプットが、適切に、効率的に処理されてはじめて、第二言語の習得は可能になる。
インプットの処理なしに、第二言語習得は生じない。
英語の学習者に、発信する能力、つまりアウトプットの能力をいかにつけさせるかはまさに急務である。◆


◆現在のインプット重視の最たるものは、多読であろう。
 わが国でも、「100万語多読」では、
①辞書は引かない、
②分からないところは飛ばす、
③つまらなくなったらやめる、
という3原則を標榜し、積極的に英語学習に活用しようとしている。
 また、酒井(2008)は、多読による大量のインプットがあれば、もう辞書も文法も不要だとさえ述べている。
 さらに、朗読音声および生音声の英語を大量に処理させる多聴を標榜する雑誌も刊行されるようになった。
 これらはすべて、「大量かつ適切なレベルのインプットだけで、学習システムは十分に作動して、言語獲得が生じる」という立場をとるものである。◆

◆以上のインプット説に対し、アウトプット理論の提唱者であるSwainは、
豊富なインプットがあっても、言語使用の十分な機会がなければ、言語理解の能力は身についても、正確な文法的操作能力にはつながらないと主張した。
 そしてこのアウトプット活動こそが、「スピーキングにおける自動性」の獲得には不可欠であると述べている。
 白井(2008)は、アウトプット活動の意義として、Swainと同様に、
①自動化が促進される、
②自分の言語能力のどこに問題があるかに気づかせる、
③ある表現が通じるかどうか検証できる、
④アウトプットが自身に対するインプットになる、
という4点を挙げている。 
 ①は、門田(2007)の言うシャドーイング・音読の効用と同じものである。
 吉田・白井(2007)は、3行英文日記をつけることを、また村野井(2006)は、読んだり聞いたりした内容を要約する方法や、英文をメモを取りながら繰り返し聴く作業のあとで、元の英文を復元させる方法などがあると指摘している。

 このようなアウトプット重視の考え方に立てば、
「インプットだけでは学習システムは十分には作動せず、それをサポートするアウトプット活動をプラスして、初めて言語の形式面の獲得が生じる」ということになる。◆


◆吉田・白井(2007)は、親の転勤などで英語圏に連れて行かれた子どもが、一定の沈黙期のあと、周囲の驚きをよそに、流暢な英語で話し始める傾向があることを指摘している。
 この沈黙期には周りの発話の理解に終始するのではなく、実は聴取した入力音声を心の中で繰り返すという復唱が重要な意味を持っているのではないかと考察している。これは、言語獲得システムが音韻ループに存在するというBaddeley(2002)、門田(2007)などの主張と一致するものになっている。◆

竹田注
・・・日本国内でただ英語を聞き流すだけでは、海外移転の子と違って「聴取した入力音声を心の中で繰り返すという復唱」が行われていないということかもしれない。
「おわりに」では、現況をうまく総括している。

◆現在の英語の学習・教育では、コミュニカティブ・アプローチが主流を成している。
これは、従来型の文法訳読法に代わって、確かにコミュニケーション能力を開発しようとするものである。
しかし、学習者の側で、その理解・産出にある程度の自動性が確立されていなければ、教室内での練習では使えても教室外で実際に使える能力には結びつかない。
この自動性を獲得するためには、繰り返し学習による、宣言的知識の手続き知識化(無意識化)を目指したドリルが不可欠である。
ただし、従来のような書記言語をもとにした英文和訳のドリルではなく、素材は音声言語を中心としたものにすべきである。
シャドーイング・音読を何度も繰り返し実行することで、そのインプット中の語彙や構文に幾度となく遭遇し、外的復唱を行うことになる。
そうすることにより、インプット処理を、スピーキングなどアウトプットに転化するための準備状態が整うのではないかと考えられる。◆


※「十分なインプットなしにアウトプットばかりに重点を置いても、当然ながら効果は期待できない」という指摘の後、「インプット活動とアウトプット活動をつなぐシャドーイング・音読」という項目がある。
 なるほどシャドーイングや音読はここにつながっているのだということを、改めて知った。

※SSS英語学習法は、「多読(Extensive Reading)」を中心に、リスニングやシャドウイングなども併用して英語を習得する方法っです。
中1修了程度の基本的な語彙を知っている人が、ごく簡単なGraded Readers(英語学習者用段階別読み物) やLeveled Readers(英米児童向け学習用段階別絵本)から始めるSSS方式(Start with Simple Stories) で多読を行えば、多くの人が半年~2年の短期間で英語のペーパーバックを辞書無しで楽しめるようになります。
また、リスニングやシャドウイングを併用することにより、聞く能力・話す能力も自然に伸ばすことができます。


※向山浩子氏が理論的に支えているTOSS型英会話も、インプットとアウトプットの融合であり、上記の「コミュニカティブ・アプローチ」を踏まえているというのが実感である。

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