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December 11, 2011

問題解決学習の長所・短所

 「問題解決学習」という手法が、次のように学習指導要領に合致していると紹介されている。

=================
「生きる力」を文部科学省は、審議委員会の答申で「自ら課題を見つけ、自ら学び、自ら考え、主体的に判断し、行動し、よりよく問題を解決する能力」、「自らを律しつつ、他人とともに協調し、他人を思いやる心や感動する心」としている。
問題解決学習はこれまでの学習指導要領の中でも常に重視されてきたが、今回の学習指導要領であらためて強調されている。
=================

http://www.echigo.ne.jp/~oya/kenQ/

同じサイトには、次のような基本情報がある。

===============
 問題解決学習とは、古くはデューイによって提唱された生活経験主義教育論の中核をなす学習原理である。
そこでは,学習は,子供たちが生活のなかで直面する具体的な問題にどう対処していくかという,問題解決行為そのものとしてとらえられる。
 教師が,生活の現実から離れた教室のなかで,講義を中心にして一方的に子供たちに一定の観念的な知識を伝達していくといった伝統的な授業形態とはまったく異なる革新的なものであった。

子 供たちが,自分の興味や関心に応じてのびのびと作業や討議を行いながら問題を解決し,そのなかで自主的に生活に必要な知識や技能を習得していくという形で,実践的な生活主体の形成をめざすこの学習理論であった。
=================
というわけで、かなり好意的に述べられている。
 
 新学社のサイトにも詳しい解説がある。
http://www.sing.co.jp/school/practice/forum22.html

================
 今日、自ら学び、自ら考える力の育成が強調され、その指導法としては、問題解決学習、発見学習、構案法(実際の作業を中心とした問題解決法)、総合的学習などが重視されている。
 問題解決学習は、もともと日常生活の中で出あう具体的な問題を教材として、その問題を主体的能動的に解決する問題解決の過程を通して法則の理解や科学的思考の方法・能力の習得を図ろうとする指導法である。

  問題解決の過程は、古くはデューイ(1910)が、
1.問題に気づく
2.問題を明らかにする
3.仮説(解き方)を提案する
4.仮説の意味を推論する
5.仮説を検討する

の五段階に分析している。
 この順序は、今日でも認められ、言葉は違っても、大体同じ内容を含んでいる。

 例えば、ブランスフォードら(1984)は、
1.問題を見分ける
2.問題を定義し、表現する
3.可能な方略を探究する
4.方略に基づいて行動する
5.振り返り、自分の活動の効果を評価する

といった五段階に分けている。
=================

・・・このような問題解決の過程や段階を見ると、正論であると思う。
 だから、以下のような長所も確かにあるのだろうと理解する。
 しかし、その一方で以下のように短所も明らかにされている。

◆◆
 問題解決学習は、経験主義に基づき、子どもが主体的に学習することを重視する。
 そのため、この指導法には、次のような長短があげられている。
 まず、長所としては、次の点が指摘されている。

1. この指導法では、子どもの関心のある問題を用いることにより、学習に対する動機づけが行われやすい。
2. 従来の教育にみられる注入主義を排して、子どもの自発的な学習を促す。
3. 思考力・創造性を伸ばすのに役立つ。
4. 実践的な問題解決力を獲得させる。
5. 子ども自身に計画、考案させ、問題解決を行わせることにより、知識と経験を総合的に獲得させる。
6. 集団的問題解決学習では、協同、責任など多くの社会的特性を養う。

  しかし、反面、次のような短所が指摘されている。

1. 教師が問題を探すのに骨が折れ、指導に労力と時間がかかる。
2. 話し合いや作業が多くなり、指導に時間がかかる。
3. 子どもの興味や自由な思考活動を尊重するあまり場当たり的な学習になる。
4. 学習が不規則になり、学習の管理が難しくなる。
5. 系統的な知識、基礎的な技能が習得されにくい。
6. 実際的、技術的な面を重視する問題解決学習では、理論的な面がお
ろそかになるとか、必要な材料の入手が難しいといったことがおこる。
7. 集団的問題解決学習では、優秀な子どもが独占し、傍観的になる子どもが出る。

  問題解決学習の実践では、このような問題点を考慮して、その長所を生かす配慮が必要である。
◆◆

とある。

 「総合的な学習」において、「問題解決学習」が望まれるには、系統的な知識・技能を習得する他教科とは趣旨が異なり、個々の課題意識にそって探究することが求められるからだ。
 逆に言うと、各教科においては、安易に「問題解決学習」の手法を用いるべきではないということになる。
 短所が明らかに長所を上回るようなら、弊害の方が大きいということになる。無理してチャレンジするだけのメリットがない。
 それでも、研究熱心な先生は、理想を求め、現代の教育に最適な手法として問題解決学習を推進しようとしているのだろう。
 研究者はそれでいい。
 肝心なのは、授業を行う現場の教師が、上記の「短所」にどう立ち向かっているか、だ。
 実際の授業が上記の「短所」を克服できないなら、「絵に描いた餅」にすぎない。
 

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