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May 20, 2012

「家庭教育」と「親学」の重要性

大阪を含む日本各地で「家庭教育」の基本条例について話題になっている。
家庭教育の必要性は、今になって急に話題になったわけではない。
そもそも2006年に教育基本法が改正された時の1つの話題が第十条「家庭教育」だった。

2007年3月の段階で、櫻井よし子氏が

「子育て」=「親育て」=「親学」ということで、提唱している。


◆ 『子育て』は『親育て』と同義 親学の開始こそ日本人再生の糸口に
『週刊ダイヤモンド』    2007年3月3日号

かつて「日本の母親ほど辛抱強く愛情に富み、子どもにつくす母親はいない」といわれた。幕末から明治にかけて日本を訪れた多くの外国人の日本見聞録をまとめた『逝きし世の面影』(渡辺京二著、平凡社)に紹介されている、日本研究者E・モースの言葉だ。

彼はこうも書いた。

「日本人は確かに児童問題を解決している」「日本の子どもほど行儀がよくて親切な子どもはいない」「世界中で両親を敬愛し老年者を尊敬すること、日本の子どもに如(し)くものはない」

『逝きし世の面影』には、モースが、料理番の9歳から10歳になる女児とその遊び仲間の二人を連れて、本郷通りの夜市を散歩した日のことも記されている。彼は2人に10銭ずつを与え、どんなふうに使われるか見ていた。すると、その子らは「地面に坐って悲しげに三味線を弾いている貧しい女、すなわち乞食の前に置かれた笊(ざる)に」、モースがなにも言わないのに「それぞれ一銭ずつ落とし入れた」というのだ。

礼節と慈悲あるかわいい子どもの姿が、そこには描かれている。渡辺氏は「欧米人の衆目を集めた子どものかわいさは、これまた彼らの感嘆の的となった親たちの愛情と照応していた」と指摘する。

“先進文明諸国”から来た欧米人が驚嘆した、彼らの母国における母子関係よりもなお愛情と尊敬に溢れた日本人親子の姿は、今どうなっているか。明星大学の髙橋史朗教授は、すべてが逆転したと語る。「『子育てはイライラする』と答える母親は、1981年の内閣府の調査では10・8%だったのが、今は75%です。『親が子の犠牲になるのはやむをえない』と答えた日本の親は38・5%、世界平均73%の約半分で、調査対象73ヵ国中72番目でした。現代の親の意識は、モースが絶賛した昔の日本の母親たちの意識と、あまりにも隔たっています」

子どものために親が自分を犠牲にするという価値観が、およそほかのどの国よりも軽視されている現在の日本では、子どもも親の変化を反映して変化した。両親への敬愛が、子どもの心から薄らいだのがその一つだ。内閣府の調査では、「父を尊敬する」米国の中高生は93%だが、日本は39%だ。「母を尊敬する」中高生は、米国が95%、日本が43%。「父のようになりたい」は、米国が68%、日本が18%。「母のようになりたい」は、米国が65%、日本が24%だ。

これらの事実は、問題はまず親の側にあることを物語る。生まれたとき子どもの視界にあるのは、親自身と親のつくり出す世界である。子どもにとっては親が全てだ。問題が発生すれば、それは親によってつくられたものだ。

だからこそ、教育によって私たちの社会をよくしていくには、親が変わらなければならない。それにしても、どんな親になればよいのか。急速に変わる地域社会で、親たちはもはや、親としての心構えを家族代々の知恵として自らの母親や祖母らから学ぶことができなくなっている。その空白を埋めようと、今、日本でもようやく親のための学び、親学が生まれた。

言葉も話せない段階から、子どもは親の言うことの30%を学び、親のすることの70%をまねるといわれる。だから、親の生き方こそが問われる。また子どもには、生まれた瞬間から年齢に応じた育て方がある。たとえば、乳幼児に絶対的に必要なものが無条件の愛だ。辛抱強く愛情に富み、子どもに尽くした母親の愛情を得て、乳幼児は初めて心を安定させることが出来る。一方で母親は注いだ愛情への子どもの反応を得て、母性を育むことが出来る。「子育て」は「親育て」と同義なのだ。

こうしたことをわかりやすく教え、実践していく親学の開始こそ、長年待たれていた。親学を通して、戦後に失われ朽ち果てた日本人の美しさが再生されると、私は期待している。

« 「 『教育』が危ない 」

http://yoshiko-sakurai.jp/index.php/2007/03/03/post_507/
===================

さすが櫻井氏。
文献引用・データの提示、そして主張(警鐘)、その文章構成の見事さに感服してしまった。

「親学」の必要性も、「教育の危機」もひしひしと伝わってくる。


『逝きし世の面影』は、あちこちでよく引用される名著である。
自分も持っているが、まだまだ読み込みが足りないことがよく分かる。

ただし、
「現代の親の意識は、モースが絶賛した昔の日本の母親たちの意識と、あまりにも隔たっています」
と居丈高に批判すると、反論も返ってくる。

◆「では、戦前のように女は家に縛られて家事と育児に専念しろということか。」
◆「では、女性の解放の歴史は間違っていたというのか」

ということになる。
むろん教育を母親だけの責任にするのも間違っている。

具体的な母親へのケア、育児への社会的な支援(経済的・精神的な負担の軽減)なくして、親学の推進は難しい。

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