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January 14, 2013

「法律だから守る」「書いてないから分からない」は同じ思考レベル

「法律だから守れ」というだけの指導ではモラルのある子は育たない。
 「当たり前のことができるように」という指導が徹底できないと、屁理屈を言う生徒に負けてしまう。
 「そんなことは、どこにも書いていない」
 「どうして、やらなければならないの」
 「やらないと、逮捕されるの?」
 「自分にとっては『当たり前』ではない」
というような主張に屈してしまうのだ。

 同じことは国語の指導でもある。
 読解の授業の中で、書いてある言葉を抜き出す作業は簡単で誰でもできる。
 「そうだよね、ここに書いてあるからね」で決着する。
 主題を考える場合、『走れメロス』は「信頼」「友情」などの言葉が出てくるから、ある意味でバレバレである。
 一方、どこにも書いていない言葉で作品の主題を考えさせる作業は難しい。
 たとえば『桃太郎』からは「正義」「団結」、 『うさぎと亀』から「油断大敵」「努力」などの言葉を考えさせる場合だ。

 客観性がないから生徒に納得させるのが難しい。
 でも、そこで「そんな言葉どこにも書いていない」という不満に屈してはいけない。
 書いていないことも想像で埋めていくこと=行間を読むことがとっても大事な読み方なのだということを何度も何度も繰り返していく必要がある。
 曲解や妄想はいけないが、ある程度の範囲で許容される解というものがある。
 だから正解が1つしかないという指導もしない。

 モラルの指導と国語の主題指導が、自分の中ではリンクしてきた。
 「書いていないから分からない」
 「書いてあることしか考えない」
という発想では「発想が貧弱だ」ということを国語では教えていく。

 そして、日頃の生活指導では
「そんなこと書いてなくたって当たり前だ」
「言われなくたって自分で考えて行動するんだ」
「自分の常識が他人に認められるかどうかはいつも試されているんだよ」
と語り続けていこうと思う。

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