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April 21, 2013

文章を正しく読み取る活動は?

 小4の国語(光村)に「春のうた」(草野新平)という詩があります。

 あるクラスで、この詩に合わせた絵を見たら、女の子や男の子が平然と描かれていて驚いたことがあります。
 この詩は冬眠から覚めたかえるの詩です。どこをどう読んでも人間は出てきません。
 この詩を絵にしたときに人間を登場させるのは、適当に描いているとしか思えないし、何をどうイメージしても「自由な読み」として認められてきたのだろうと推測せざるをえません。

 国語の授業ですから、何をどう読んでも自由というわけにはいきません。
 文章を根拠にしないと、お互いの意見(解釈)が、かみ合いません。


 この詩の場合、主人公である「かえる」の位置についても同様です。
 あるクラスでは、冬眠のイメージが強すぎたのか、「土の中(穴の中)」にいると答えた子がたくさんいました。
(そのような実態だからこそ、授業のやりがいがあるのですが)

 詩の冒頭をきちんと読ませました。

◆かえるは冬のあいだは土の中にいて春になると地上に出てきます。そのはじめての日のうた。◆

 この詩は、地上にでてきたはじめての日のうたであると書いてあります。
 多少、譲歩しても、土の中から地上に顔を出したところ、ということになります。
 しかも、第一声が「ほっ まぶしいな」なのですから、地上に出てきて太陽の光を受けていることがは分かります。

 文章を正しく読みとるということは

 「文章に○○と書いてあるから、~だということが分かる」
 「文章に○○と書いてあるから、~に違いない」

と思考することです。

 豊かに読む・イメージ豊かに読むといったって、自由気ままに想像してよいという意味ではありません。
 それでは妄想や曲解もOKとなってしまいます。

 文章を正しく読む行為は、事実を正しく判断する行為と直結します。
 大人になるまでにきちんと身につけたい能力の1つです。 

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