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October 28, 2013

達意の文章を書くことが最優先

 市の教研レポート(国語)を見せてもらった。テーマは「読み手を意識した文章を書くことができる児童の育成」。
 その中に、比喩や擬人法・体言止めなどの「効果的な表現技法」の指導場面の紹介があった。
 私は、このような「表現技法=美文の指導」は否定はしないが、「達意の文章の指導」に比べたら優先順位は低い。
 まずは意味が通ることが大事だと思っている。

 【理由1】
 不用意に倒置法や体言止めを使うと、主語述語の怪しい文になる。

 【理由2】
 擬人法も、誇張の一種だから、時として事実をあいまいにする。
 レポートには「事実と意見を区別する」の指導場面もあったが、比喩表現などを用いると、筆者の意見が入りこんでしまう場合がある。
 慣用句も同じだ。例えば「首を長くして待つ」と言うより、「1時間じっと待った」の方が誤解が少ない。
 また、仕事をする上では「ふかふかの絨毯」より「毛足が1センチの絨毯」の方が誤解がない。
 このように「数値を入れる」表現の癖を付ける方が、他者には正確に伝わりやすい。

 作文指導というと、技法を凝らした美文の指導を意味することが多い。
 でも、私は、意味が通ることをまずは指導したい。

 ①一文一義の文意識
 ②文と文を適切な接続語でつなぐ文のつながりの意識
 ③ナンバリング・ラベルング
 ④意味が変わったら段落を変える段落意識
 ⑤結論を先に提示する頭括型の文章構造意識
などなど。

 とりあえずの思いつきで列挙してみると、結局、ほとんどが宇佐美寛氏の著作から学んだことだと気づく。
 再度、宇佐美氏の著作を読み返して、整理してみよう。

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