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December 08, 2013

「昭和の独白録」(文春文庫)

 「昭和天皇独白録」(文春文庫)は、1990年発掘、発表されて大反響を呼んだ昭和史の超一級資料とある。
すでに教師になっていて小6の歴史も教えていたのに、どうして今ままで読まなかったのだろうか。
自分のアンテナの低さに恥ずかしくなるばかりである。

 抜粋すれば、きりがない。「独白録」は、聞き書きにすぎないから真実は分からない。それでも第一級の資料であることは変わりない。

 私が一番関心を持ったのは、昭和天皇の考える「敗戦の原因」だ。(引用の漢字表現を数か所変える)

◆敗戦の原因は四つあると思ふ。
第一、兵法の研究が不充分であった事、即孫子の、敵を知り、己を知らねば百戦危からずといふ根本原理を体得してゐなかったこと。
第二、余りに精神に重きを置き過ぎて科学の力を軽視した事
第三、陸海軍の不一致
第四、常識ある首脳者の存在しなかった事。往年の山縣[有朋]、、大山[巌]、山本権兵衛、と云ふ様な大人物に欠け、政戦両略の不充分の点が多く、且つ軍の首脳者の多くは専門家であって部下統率の力量に欠け、所謂下剋上の状態を招いた事。

・・・注意書きには、昭和二十年九月の皇太子宛の手紙には次のように昭和天皇は記したとある。

◆「我が国人が、あまちに皇国を信じ過ぎて 英米をあなどったことである 我が軍人は 精神に重きをおきすぎて科学を忘れたことである。明治天皇の時には 山縣 大山 山本等の如き名将があったが 今度の時はあたかも第一次世界大戦の独国の如く 軍人がバッコして大局を考えず 進むを知って 退くことを知らなかったからです」

・・・これを「天皇のいはば不動の太平洋戦争観」と評している。


 二点目に関心を持ったのは「御前会議」だ。
 御前会議は昭和開幕から太平洋戦争開戦まで8回開かれたが、16年9月以外は、昭和天皇は無言で国策を裁可した。

 独白録には次のようにある(P56)
◆(前略)枢密院議長を除く外の出席者は全部既に閣議又は連絡会議に於て、意見一致の上、出席してゐるので、議案に対し反対意見を開陳し得る立場の者は枢密院議長只一人であって、多数に無勢、如何ともなし難い。
 全く形式的なもので、天皇には会議の空気を支配する決定権は、ない。

 昭和天皇自身は開戦に反対であったが、御前会議の議案を反対することにはためらいがあった。
 出席者が意見を一致させたものをひっくり返せば、独裁者になってしまう。
 この点を、次のように述べている(P159)

◆開戦の際藤樹内閣の決定を私が裁可したのは立憲政治下に於る立憲君主として已むを得ぬ事である。若し己が好む所は裁可し、好まざる所は裁可しないつれば、之は専制君主と何等異なる所はない。


 ちなみに、この独白録の記録を担当した寺崎英成は、日米開戦の該当者の1人である。
 12月6日夜、本務をはずれていた寺崎とほか2名の、内輪の送別会が開かれた。
◆真珠湾攻撃のあった12月7日の日曜日は、寺崎は転勤を前に休暇を与えられていた。
(中略)寺崎は大使館に赴いた。そこで寺崎が目にしたのは、奥村が血走った目でタイプを叩き、野村と来栖が立ったり座ったりしている焦燥の姿であったのである。寺崎は開戦通告遅延をふくむすべての事情をのちになって聞かされた。(P8)


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