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April 27, 2014

 「説明」だけでは、授業にならない

 教師は、いつも教えたい内容をもっています。では、教えたい内容を、どう提示すればよいでしょうか。
 準備が足りないと、どうしても「説明」で押し切ろうとしてしまいます。
 説明主体(講義調)の授業は、教えたつもりになっているだけで、子どもが理解していないことが多いです。プレゼン型の授業というと、かっこいいですが、聞いているだけでは子どもは退屈です。
 
 「聞いたことは忘れる。見たことは覚える。やったことは理解する」とも言われます。

=====================
 子どものためを思って、熱心に、懇切丁寧に、じっくりと、何度も説明する先生は、実は子どもを算数嫌いにしている。
 先生が説明すればするほど、子どもは分からなくなる。
 このことを受け入れられる先生は、授業が劇的に改善される。
 子どもから言われるだろう。
 「先生の算数、よく分かる!」
 説明は短ければ短い方がよい。目標は10秒。理想は0秒。
 どう進めるのか。ポイントは「作業指示」である。
  「教室ツーウエイ」2013・4月号 P50 木村重夫氏論文より
======================

◆教えたい内容を、発問の形にして問いかけ、考えさせる(子ども自身の言葉で言わせてみる)。
 ◆聞くだけでなく、復唱させる・ノートに書かせる。
 ◆記憶の印象に強くするために、視覚に訴える。
 ◆実際に作業させたり、テストをしたりして理解したかどうかを確認する。

といった工夫が必要です。どんな活動・どんな作業指示を与えるかで、授業の流れが変わります。

===================
 ①自分の意見をノートに書きなさい
 ②挙手してもらいます
 ③お隣同志、意見を言い合いなさい
  そして、「指示」の後の学習活動を取り上げて、具体的に褒めること。
  ここまでがひとつのサイクルである。  
        「教育トークライン」2014年3月号P34
===================

 ①挙手・発言させる ②全員に言わせる    ③指名して発言させる ④黒板に書かせる
 ⑤お隣と相談させる ⑥グループで相談させる ⑦ノートに考えを書かせる   など

 このような作業指示も、いつも同じパターンだと子どもが飽きてしまいます。
 だからこそ「変化のある繰り返し」が大切になります。
 単調な繰り返しにならないよう、テンポよく指名したり、じっくりノートに書かせたりと作業のさせ方を工夫する必要があります。
 そのように、いろいろ変化させていく中でも、全員立たせたる場面やノートに書かせる場面がおおよそ決まってくると、授業の型が安定し、子どもたちも落ち着いて授業に取り組めます。

※なお「説明0秒の授業」というのは、作業を繰り返す中で、子どもに学習内容を体得させる授業のことです。


 「効果10倍の<教える>技術 授業から企業研修まで(PHP新書)」という本があり、この第1章には以下のような記述があります。
==================  
 約二千五百年前にあの有名な老子は「聞いたことは、忘れる。見たことは、覚える。やったことは、わかる」と言ったそうです。{略}この老子が言ったことを数字で表したアメリカの研究者がいました。それは、次の通りです(数字は、記憶に残る割合を表しています)。

 聞いたことは、10%   
 見たことは、15%  
 聞いて見たときは、20%
 話し合ったときは、40% 
 体験したときは、80%{略} 
 教えたときは、90%
            http://necomesi-ceo.hatenablog.com/entry/2013/02/20/004325
====================
※「教えたとき」というのは、隣の子に教えてあげるような場合だと思います。

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